The word osteology can be deduced from greek. It consists partly of the word osteon - bone and partly of the word logos. A free translation will be the knowledge of bones. In this page osteology refers to the study of animal and human remains from archaeological sites. The goal of animal osteology is to gain a better understanding of the relationship between humans and other animal populations. The human bones are studied because they bear the witness of the life of the people we study

If you want to read more about osteology, read this two books:

Zooarchaeology by E. J. Reitz and E. S. Wing
Digging up bones by D. R. Brothwell